合成生物学 ›› 2022, Vol. 3 ›› Issue (1): 224-237.doi: 10.12211/2096-8280.2021-036

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美德伦理视角下的合成生物学技术伦理治理

郭思敏, 叶斌, 徐飞   

  1. 中国科学技术大学人文与社会科学学院科技哲学系,安徽 合肥 230026
  • 收稿日期:2021-03-25 修回日期:2021-06-28 出版日期:2022-02-28 发布日期:2022-03-14
  • 通讯作者: 徐飞
  • 作者简介:郭思敏(1993—),女,博士研究生。研究方向为科技哲学。E-mail:guosimin@mail.ustc.edu.cn|叶斌(1988—),男,博士,副研究员。主要研究方向为科技伦理、近代哲学。E-mail:binye@ustc.edu.cn|徐飞(1961—),男,教授,博士生导师。研究方向为科技哲学与科学史、科学技术与社会。E-mail:Xufei@ustc.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助项目(YD2110002004)

Ethical governance for synthetic biology technology from the perspective of virtue ethics

Simin GUO, Bin YE, Fei XU   

  1. Department of Philosophy of Science and Technology,School of Humanities and Social Sciences,University of Science and Technology of China,Hefei 230026,Anhui,China
  • Received:2021-03-25 Revised:2021-06-28 Online:2022-02-28 Published:2022-03-14
  • Contact: Fei XU

摘要:

当前针对合成生物学技术的伦理治理已取得初步进展,基于后果主义和义务论的合成生物学伦理研究分别从事先规则制定和事后价值评估的角度为合成生物学技术的伦理治理提供了参考,但由于该技术的不确定性特质,已有的伦理治理方案依然在不同程度上面临科林格里奇困境。本研究认为,还应当寻求一条连接前者和后者,能够贯穿整个合成生物学研究过程的伦理治理路径。合成生物学科研人员作为唯一贯穿技术立项、研究及应用全过程的科研主体,对技术发展中的风险决策以及产品构建等都具有主导性影响。本文认为厘清以合成生物学科研人员为对象的伦理规范,将对当前的合成生物学技术治理研究构成有益补充,有效促进该技术的正向发展。为此,文章首先论证合成生物学科研人员伦理道德水平对技术发展与应用的巨大影响;其次讨论已有合成生物学科研人员伦理理论与规范,分析其在实践及理论上的困境;最后,引入美德伦理学视角,从理论角度探讨美德伦理学对合成生物学科研人员伦理规范的指导意义,并在此基础上尝试提出基于美德伦理和生物安全协同共治的合成生物学技术伦理综合治理建议。

关键词: 合成生物学, 美德伦理, 科研人员, 美德教育

Abstract:

The current research on the ethical governance for synthetic biology technology has achieved preliminary progress. The ethical research for synthetic biology based on consequentialism and deontology provides a reference for the ethical governance of synthetic biology technology from the perspectives of pre-rule-making and post-value evaluation. However, synthetic biology technology is an emerging technology, and many questions about its nature, future use, and social consequences remain to be addressed. Due to its uncertain nature, many ethical issues related to synthetic biology technology cannot be reliably identified or analyzed, and it is still impossible to fully predict what ethical issues will arise once the technology is fully developed and entrenched in society. For the above reasons, existing ethical governance programs still face the Colingridge's dilemma to varying degrees. Studies indicate that we should seek an ethical governance path connecting the former and the latter and running through the entire synthetic biology research process. Synthetic biology researchers, as the scientific research subject who runs through the entire process from establishment of the technology project to research and application, have a leading influence on process for risk decision-making and product construction. This work suggests that clarifying the ethical norms for synthetic biology researchers would constitute a useful supplement to the current research on synthetic biology technology governance and effectively promote the technology development. To this end, we first demonstrate the influence of synthetic biology researchers' ethical level on the development and application of the technology; second, explore the ethical theories and norms for synthetic biology researchers, and analyze their practical and theoretical dilemmas; finally, we highlight the perspective of virtue ethics, discusse the guiding significance of virtue ethics to the ethics of synthetic biology researchers from a theoretical perspective, and on this basis propose suggestions on the comprehensive management of synthetic biology technology ethics.

Key words: synthetic biology, virtue ethics, researchers, virtue education

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